PKn, letnik 25, št.1, Ljubljana, junij 2002
Štuhec: Naratologija med teorijo in prakso (Alenka
Pacheiner-Klander: Staroindijske verzne oblike (Lenart Škof) 58
novosti v knjižnici za slovensko literaturo in literarne vede ZRC SAZU (Alenka
Aleksander Skaza: KULTUROLOGIJA IN POUČEVANJE RUSKE LITERATURE V SVETU V POGOJIH GLOBALIZACIJE
Filozofska fakulteta, Ljubljana
Referat nakazuje nekatere temeljne vrednote ruske kulture, ki bi jih bilo treba upoštevati pri pouku ruske literature ob zahtevah, ki jih zastavlja humanističnim vedam sodobna globalizacija sveta. Pozornost je posvečena predvsem estetskemu humanizmu. Ta se je najbolj celovito uveljavil v umetnosti F. M. Dostojevskega in sugestivno izrazil v pisateljevem načelu »lepota bo rešila svet« in paradoksu »vsi smo za vse krivi«, ki se navezuje na zavest o nedeljivi odgovornosti človeka in človeštva za usodo globalizirajočega se sveta.
Cultural studies and the teaching of russian literature under the conditions of globalisation. The article deals with some fundamental values of Russian culture which should be taken into consideration in the teaching of Russian literature following the demands made on the humanities by globalisation. The main focus is on aesthetic humanism, of which the best example can be found in the art of F. M. Dostoyevsky, and which was suggestively conveyed in the author’s principle that “Beauty will save the world” and the paradox “We are all to blame for everything”, correlated to the consciousness of the indivisibility of human responsibility and humanity for the fate of the globalising world.
globalisation poses a number of questions to the humanities. In literary studies
and especially the teaching of literature the question is how to present and
make prominent the aesthetic and ethical values of literary art in an effort to
accomplish fruitful mutual interaction and normal relations between nations in a
globalising world. The teaching of literature, which is based on a humanist
version of globalisation, originates in the conviction that for actual,
qualitative changes in the globalising world, the basic starting point is
culture, or knowing and understanding culture, both one’s own and that of
others. Culture (realised as memory and “a special kind of correlation between
knowledge and creativity, philosophy and aestheticism, religion and science”
(Andrej Beli)) means the ability and aptitude to accept coexistence and dialogue
between different national cultures and their traditions.
efforts, in the system of Russian culture, Russian literature offers
exceptionally copious material. It can be discovered mainly in the tradition of
aesthetic humanism. The clearest example of this can be found in the art of F.
M. Dostoyevsky, as conveyed in the author’s principle that “Beauty will save
the world” and the paradox “We are all to blame for everything”. In the 20th
century the paradox of “collective guilt”, deeply rooted in the tradition of
Russian culture, was also indirectly echoed in the famous paper Alarm and Hope
by the Russian humanist, Andrei Saharov, and was one of the incentives for his
call to “new thinking”, and a convergence, linked with the warning that
everyone, collectively and as individuals, is responsible for the preservation
of culture and life itself on the planet.
the last few decades, in the transition from the 20th century to the
21st century, for the first time in the history of Russian culture,
socio-cultural pluralism, coexisting with science, art, and religion as the
third component of culture, has become a reality. In a number of excellent works
by Russian writers (D. S. Likhachov, J. M. Lotman, B. F. Jegorov, V. N. Toporov,
and others) the modern theoretical realisation of Russian literature within the
system of Russian culture has offered us the opportunity to gain greater insight
not only into how the history of a thousand-year old culture proceeded step by
step towards the origin and prominence of a totalitarian mentality and
totalitarian state, but also how in Russian literature a grain of free-thinking
and protest has been present since the beginning. Pushkin’s “secret freedom”,
the presence of the so-called European ternary model (J. M. Lotman) in Russian
culture linked with the Pushkin, Tolstoy, Chekhov and the free thinkers of the
20th century (J. M. Lotman, A. Sakharov and others), which regards
the human as a value in itself, with the actualisation of Bakhtin’s idea that
“one’s own culture is shown more fully and deeply only in the eyes of
another culture”, confirm the conviction of the importance of knowing and
making prominent the aesthetic and ethical values of (Russian) literature and
culture under conditions of globalisation.
Marko Juvan: ŽANRSKA
IDENTITETA IN MEDBESEDILNOST
Inštitut za slovensko literaturo in literarne vede ZRC SAZU, Ljubljana
Antiesencializem je v genologiji privedel do teze, da so zvrsti in žanri zgolj sistemi razlik brez določljive formalne ali vsebinske substance, ki bi se jo dalo pokazati v besedilih. Danes lahko s pomočjo koncepcije medbesedilnosti žanrsko identiteto pojasnimo drugače: žanri živijo od družbenih praks, ki okvirjajo medbesedilne in metabesedilne navezave ter sklicevanja na prototipska besedila, besedilne nize.
Genre identity and intertextuality. In genology anti-essentialism has led to the thesis that genres are merely systems of differences indefinable in terms of the form or content which can be displayed in texts. The concept of intertextuality can now help explain genre identity differently: genres live off social practices, which frame intertextual and meta-textual links and references to prototypical text, textual series.
In genology anti-essentialism, as an epistemological trait of post-structuralism and historicism, has led – following Wittgenstein’s idea of family resemblances – to the conviction that genres are merely systems which are indefinable in terms of form or content which can be displayed in texts combined in some genological category. According to such logic, genre identity is necessarily historically unstable, depending merely on ‘extra-textual’, pragmatic or contextual factors, in a final consequence of how routines in the production and consumption of cultural products are being institutionalised or decomposed. Although the concept of intertextuality originally also derived from the opposition to ‘the metaphysics of presence’, it now enables genology a different explanation of genre identity: the origin, existence, operation and changing of genres, as well as the relation between the text and genre with the help of intertextuality can be explained in a way which does not neglect the semantic, syntactic or pragmatic properties of the texts. These properties are the very starting point that in literary production itself and its immediate or subsequent reflection (genre perception) forms genres. Genres live off social practices which frame intertextual and meta-textual links and references to prototypical texts, textual series. A text or a series of texts becoming a prototype of a genre is a result of intertextual and meta-textual interaction: on the one hand, there is the effect (influence) of semantic, syntactic and pragmatic traits of prototypical texts on domestic and foreign literary descendents and, on the other hand, intertextual descriptions and intertextual derivations and references in post-texts, which re-establish the ‘hard core’ or prototype of genre. Because of the genre and performantive component of communicative competence, a particular text is, on the one hand, dependent on generic patterns (these are not abstract codes, but intertextual 'déja lu’s'), since the linguistic material is necessarily regulated by them; on the other hand, a text itself with different processes of intertextual reference actively takes part in the plurality of genre context; so the author creates a meaning and structure for a text, and in this way influences the reader’s expectations and procedures.
VREDNOTENJE na slovenskem od 1918 do 1945
Inštitut za slovensko literaturo in literarne vede ZRC SAZU, Ljubljana
Članek povzema izsledke obsežnejše raziskave o slovenskem literarnem vrednotenju med vojnama in nakazuje perspektivo, v kateri so se razvijale glavne duhovne usmeritve tega vrednotenja – katoliška, svobodomiselna in marksistična. Na primeru glavnih avtorjev teh usmeritev – to so France Vodnik, Josip Vidmar in Ivo Brnčič – je predstavljena tudi tipološka problematika slovenskega literarnega vrednotenja v času med vojnama.
Evaluation of literature in Slovenian criticism 1918–1945. The article recapitulates the results of an extensive study of Slovene literary criticism between the two world wars and indicates a perspective in which the main spiritual orientations of this criticism – Catholic, freethinking and Marxist – have been developing. The main authors of these orientations – France Vodnik, Josip Vidmar and Ivo Brnčič – are provided as examples of how problematic the typology of Slovene literary criticism between the wars is.
slovenski odmev na proustove motive nastanka in obstoja literarnega dela
80-LETNICI SMRTI MARCELA PROUSTA (1871–1922)
Spis obravnava literarno-ontološko razmišljanje filozofa Franja Čibeja (1901–1929) v tistem delu njegove razprave »Funkcije pesništva« (1926), v katerem analizira motivno-tematske sklope Proustovega cikla »Iskanje izgubljenega časa«. V njih predstavi zlasti literarno-ontološko problematiko pripovedovalčevega obujanja spominov na nastajanje črtice o treh zvonikih, pripovedovalčevega prvega literarnega dela.
The early treatment by the Slovenian philosopher of the ontological motifs pertaining to the literary work of art in Proust’s opus. The article treats the literary-ontological deliberations of philosopher Franjo Čibej (1901-1929) in a part of his study, “The Functions of Poetry” (1926), in which the author analyses the motifs and themes of A la recherché du temps perdu by Proust. In particular, he presents the literary-ontological problems which concern the narrator’s reminiscences of writing a short story about three belfries, the narrator’s first literary work.
Čibej, who completed his PhD studies with a thesis entitled
“Subject-psychological Analysis of Social Forms” (“Predmetno-psihološka
analiza socialnih form”) under the supervision of France Veber at the
Department of Philosophy at Ljubljana University in 1925, and later followed the
philosophical anthropology of Max Scheler, a student of Husserl, in a study
entitled “The Functions of Poetry” draws from subject theory correlated to
transcendental-phenomenological philosophy. Čibej also wrote his essay under
the influence of a book by E. R. Curtius, Französischer Geist im neuen Europa (with
an extensive introductory discussion entitled “Marcel Proust”) and numerous
literary-ontological motifs on the essence and existence of literature in Proust’s
Romanesque writing, A la recherché du temps perdus.
Proust’s work, Čibej analyses some adequate descriptions of a narrator’s
primary literary experience in the stream of recording the first literary work
of Proust’s narrator, a short story about three belfries, and then secondary
literary experience, when Proust’s narrator, the author of the story, years
after writing his first work, re-experiences it so strongly while reading it
that he places it completely unchanged in his new, extensive Romanesque
understanding of Proust’s themes and motifs relating to literary art by Čibej
proves that Slovene
phenomenological thought in the 20s of the previous century was also fully aware
of its competence in researching literary works of art and has therefore also
made them prominent.